Learning Goals

  • Understand how to use #each to iterate over an array
  • Understand how to transform, create a subset, and create something new with #each


  • Collection
  • Iteration
  • Block
  • Block Variable

Warm Up

  • What do you notice about the code below?
  • What issues could potentially crop up?
  • Is there an alternative you could propose?
students = ["Megan", "Bob", "Mike"]
puts students[0]
puts students[1]
puts students[2]


When we have a solution that works for a small number of items, but does not work for a large number of items, we say that it doesn’t scale. We want to design solutions that are dynamic, meaning they will work if we have 3 elements or 1 million elements.


A Collection in Ruby is an Array or a Hash. For now, we will be focusing on Arrays.

Iterating is doing something several times.

each is a method that iterates over a collection. This means that each allows us to do something for every element of an array. An Iteration is a single pass over an element. We can use each to print all of our students like this:

students = ["Megan", "Bob", "Mike"]

students.each do |student|
  puts student

Let’s break this down. students is our collection. It is an Array of three strings. .each is a method that we call on students.

Everything between the do and end is the Block. The Block is what runs for each element in the Array. Since we have three elements, this block will run a total of three times.

student is the Block Variable. For each iteration, this variable will contain the current element we are iterating over. So for the first iteration, student holds the value Megan, the second time it holds the value Bob, and the third time it holds the value Mike.

In general, the format for using .each looks like this.

collection.each do |block_variable|
  # Code here runs for each element
  # the current element's value is stored in the block_variable variable

Return Values One very important thing to remember: each returns the original array. This will make more sense as we learn more about enumerables during a later lesson.

When to use #each

Aside from printing all of the elements in a list, there are a lot of situations where we would need to use #each. You can use #each to transform elements within a collection, transform the collection itself into a new collection, locate specific elements from a collection, or create something new with some or all of the elements in a collection. The possibilities are really endless, which makes #each (and iteration in general) one of the most useful tools in a developer’s skillset.

Ruby has other methods that allow you to manipulate arrays. We will learn more about them later, but each is the workhorse of the array world. If you ever aren’t quite sure if there’s a method to do specifically what you want, you can always use each.

Transform Every Element

Often, you will have a collection of objects that you need to transform, or map, into a new collection. For example, if you had the array ['mike', 'bob', 'megan'] and you needed the array ['Mike', 'Bob', 'Megan'] you could use #each to accomplish this goal. Let’s open a playground.rb file and take a look:

names = ['mike', 'bob', 'megan']

names.each do |name|

p names

Run the playground file - what happens?

Is this what you expected?

Most students would expect to see ['Mike', 'Bob', 'Megan'], so why is that not the case?

Each gives us access to every element, but it doesn’t save anything for us. If we want to save the capitalization (or save the transformed information), we need to create a place to save it, enter the accumulator:

names = ['mike', 'bob', 'megan']

capitalized_names = []

names.each do |name|
  capitalized_names << name

p capitalized_names

Since we know that each won’t save anything for us, we need to create some placeholder container to store our new collection. In Mod 1, you may hear this placeholder called the accumulator or the aggregator. The thing to remember is that when you are using #each, you will almost always use some sort of placeholder to preserve the result that you want - in this case, the capitalized names. Without the placeholder, you will not be able to access the information that you want!

Again - without the accumulator/placeholder/aggregator, you will NOT be able to access the information you want.

Get a Subset of a Collection

In the example above, we are using #each to create a new array that is the same length as the original array - we are doing something to and storing each and every element in the array. But what if we wanted to return only a subsection of a collection? We can still use #each!

Take a look at the example below - what do you think will be printed to the terminal when this file is executed?

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

odd_numbers = []

numbers.each do |number|
  if number.odd?
    odd_numbers << number

p odd_numbers

In this example, we can see how the addition of a simple boolean statement can help us use #each to accomplish a more complex task - grabbing only some of the elements in the array based on whether or not they meet a specific condition.

Create Something New

What if we want to use a collection to build something new? Say we have a collection of integers and we want to know the sum of all of those integers? Let’s take a look:

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

total = 0

numbers.each do |number|
  total += number

puts total

Unlike our previous examples, here we can see how #each can be used to create something other than another collection. In this case, we are using #each to collect a running total (or sum) of each of the elements within the original collection, numbers.

The examples we have outlined are by no means a complete list of the ways that #each can be used; they are only illustrations of the types of things you can accomplish with #each. As you grow your skills as a programmer, you will find more and more complex uses for #each and iteration in general.

Single-Line Syntax

You can replace a do/end with {/}. This allows you to write each on a single line. Our example from before could also be written as:

students = ["Megan", "Bob", "Mike"]
students.each { |student| puts student }

Generally, we avoid using single-line syntax unless the operation inside the block is very short. In this example, it is appropriate since we have a short and simple operation.

“Programming is not like being in the CIA, you don’t get credit for being sneaky” - Justin Etheredge.

Readability matters more than being clever.


Now it’s your turn to practice.

With your new best friends in your breakout room, use the following array with .each to complete the following:

singers = ["billie", "ariana", "lizzo", "leon"]

  1. Can you print out their names capitalized?
  2. Can you print out their names in all caps?
  3. Can you print out their names but reversed? (["leon", "lizzo", "ariana", "billie"])
  4. Can you create a new array with only the names that are longer than four letters in length?
  5. Can you create a new array with the lengths of their names?

Now, with this array can you do the following using .each?

numbers = [1,2,3,4,5]

  1. Can you create a new array with only the odd numbers?
  2. Can you create a new array with only the even numbers?
  3. Can you print out each number doubled?
  4. Can you print out if the number is divisible by 2 or not?
  5. Can you find the the sum of the numbers?

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